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The embouchure hole has to be covered completely. Blow fast air with a lot of pressure through the tube, as if you would be warming up your flute. By changing the angle between flute and mouth, the amount of harmonics in the jet can be influenced.
The embouchure hole has to be surrounded by the lips. A short and fast air stream is blocked by ramming the tongue abrubtly between the lips into the hole.
Slap / Pizzicato / Sputato
A percussive sound created by a extremely hard articulation, the tongue either between the lips or in normal position, almost spitting into the instrument. There is no air stream from the lungs involved. The sound is very close to pizzicato on a string instrument. This effect is often combined with a key click.
Eolian Sound / Residual Tones
With a unfocussed embouchure the resonance of the tube produces a light windy sound.
This sound is only possible from lowest B natural until middle E or F (the highest notes with the help of the trill keys) The soundcolour can be changed by changing the shape of the inside of the mouth (distance between the teeth). Higher registers however can be played with a similar colour, mixing the real flute sound with a lot of unfocussed air. (however this is not eolian sound)
This sound is produced by vibrating lips, like a brass instrument. The mouth hole of the instrument has to be put on the lips without pressure. The sound can be produced breathing out and breathing in. To get a richer sound the space inside the mouth has to be in resonance with the fingered note. The lips can also be put directly on the center joint after taking the headjoint off. This technique is easier to do.
The resonance of the instrument defines the pitch of the percussive sound produced by clicking the keys strongly. It is not necesseraly the corresponding Finger which has to move for a key click of a certain pitch (D finger or a click in D). Different fingers produce different tone colours and dynamics with the same length of tube. If the lips are not placed on the embouchure, the pitch is a half step above the fingered note.
Whistle Tones / Whisper Tones
The flute is slightly turned out. With very loose lips, open throat and a extremely slow airstream a whistling sound is produced. Random whistle tones in free cascades can be produced on one basic note, according to its series of harmonics. It is also possible to finger a 3rd octave note and blow very softly. In this case the mouth has to be shaped as if you would whistle a very high note. Once you match the resonance of the tube with the shape of the inside of your mouth, you can play exactly pitched whistle tones. There is almost no dynamic range of whistle tones, so don't try t play loud. The Whistle tones carry enough.
Rolling the tongue behind the teeth spelling "r" or making the same sound using the throat. Flutter Tongue needs a slightly higher air pressure.
Notation Flatterzunge – Igor Strawinsky, Le sacre du printemps, Teil 1, Cercles mystérieux des adolescentes, bei der Ziffer 103.
Bisbigliando is a tremolo between different fingerings of the same harmonic. The result is a fast shimmery change of tone colour.
Using special fingerings – mostly small open toen holes followed by covered large tone holes – several notes can be produced simultaneously. Most of the time the lower note defines the support of the breathing system and the higher notes is brought in by bringing the lips slightly forward. To play a diminuendo of a Multiphonic, the highest note of the "chord" should be the reference tone and played to the end of the diminuendo.
Harmonics / Flageolet
Harmonics are produced by overblowing low notes. One Harmonic can have different fundamental notes from which it is produced. Each of those fingerings influences the tone colour of the harmonic.
Glissando can be produced by using smooth finger movements or by turning the flute in or out. (changing the amount of covering the mouthhole). Small glissandi can be done by lip movements (note bending). Most often a combination of these techniques is used.
The technique of circular breathing can be divided in four parts.